Punjab (Golden City ) is a city in the northwestern part of India.
Amritsar is located in Punjab state of India between 31°37'59.16"
N 74°51'56.16" E latitudes. The city of Amritsar spreads
on an area of 5075 km². Ideally located in the northwest
part of India, Amritsar is at a distance of 32 miles from Lahore
and Pakistan. The district of Amritsar falls in Jalandhar division
and has a trapezium shape.
Amritsar has a leveled plain and is situated at an elevation
of 200 meters in the northeast to about 175 meters in the southwest.
The terrain of Amritsar can be put under three categories: The
Upland Plain, Bluff along the Beas and Floodplain of Satluj.Amritsar city is one of the cities of the Punjab state in India.
This city was founded by Guru Ram Das in 1574 on land bought by
him for 700 rupees from the owners of the village of Tung. Earlier
Guru Ram Das had begun building Santokhsar Sarovar, near the village
of Sultanwind in 1564 (according to one source in 1570). It could
not be completed before 1588. In 1574, Guru Ram Das built his
residence and moved to this place. At that time, it was known
as Guru Da Chakk. (Later, it came to be known as Chakk Ram Das).
Since then this city has been known as Amritsar (after the name of the sarovar). The first stone of the foundation of the Darbar Sahib is said to have been laid by Sain Mian Mir Sahib, a Muslim saint from Punjab, at Guru Arjun Dev's request. A story in Sikh lore tells of a mason who then corrected the stone's alignment and was chided by Guru Arjun Dev for doing so with the Saint stating that the re-alignment was symbolic of the complex being continually attacked and rebuilt. Masons worked on laying the foundation on January 3, 1588.The climate of the district is characterized by general dryness except in the brief south –west monsoon season, a hot summer and bracing winter . The year may be divided in four seasons. The cold season is from November to march. The period from April to June is the hot season. The south-west monsoon season is from about the beginning of July to the first week of September. The succeeding period lasting till the beginning of November is the post-monsoon or transition period .
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Amritsar geography has played a substantial role in shaping its history. Its central location along the Indochinese Peninsula and relatively flat terrain facilitated the rise of the Khmer Empire which flourished from its base in Angkor for over 500 years